Any manufacturing firm can learn a lesson from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have arranged the operations in the US as well as the automotive companies

In this work, Darwin showed that the species of plants and animals are variable, and that the present species have evolved naturally from the other species that existed previously. The features of the newest species are created by the natural selection of the non-directional changes which can be useful for the organism. Thus, the form most suited to the current environment will survive. In 1868, Darwin published his second major work named “The Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication,” which was a supplement for his theory (Shanahan 111). In this work, he included a variety of the actual evidence of the evolution of organic forms drawn from the centuries-old practice. The third great work on the theory of evolution named “The Descent of Man” was published in 1871, by adding the book “The Expression of this Emotions in Man and Animals”, thus giving it a logical ending (Shanahan 249).

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The Evolution of Darwinism

Although Darwin’s theory was considering a huge number of facts, was carefully designed and looked very convincing, it offers met a resistance in the clinical community and secular society. Even the secular press of that time had written that Darwin’s a few ideas are not only unscientific, but if they are widespread, the morality would lose its steady authority. Therefore, the adoption of the theory of evolution was a hard fight, but Darwin himself failed to take part in it due to his poor health.a profile essay example In addition, the financial freedom of the very wealthy Darwin family allowed him never to participate in the “struggle for existence.”

Darwin’s theory has not triumphed immediately and simultaneously in all countries. Thanks to the efforts of Hooker, Lyell and Huxley in England, Haeckel and Mueller in Germany, it is often established in these countries during the life of Darwin (Masci 758). In France it was not successful, because its clinical circles were dominated by the idea of catastrophism by G. Cuvier, as well as the theory failed to find active supporters. In general, in the process of the formation and evolution of Darwin’s theory (which has occurred throughout its history), the controversy was devoted to a limited quantity of the key issues – the evidence of the rightness or wrongness of the evolutionary a few ideas. In particular, Darwin offered to look for them in the fossils. He hoped that in time, interspecific transitional life forms, which prove the rightness of his teaching, is found. Since then, thousands and thousands of fossils were discovered, but the situation remained rather tense. Only a few findings could barely pass for transitional forms. Moreover, between different vertebrates (fish, reptiles, and birds) there were at least some dubious transitional forms, as well as the means of transition from invertebrates to vertebrates remained a mystery. In addition, there were no convincing examples of transitional forms in the plant kingdom (Yahya 47).

Nonetheless, Darwinism gradually gained strength, which allowed him never to listen to the authoritative opponents. For example, the famous works of Louis Pasteur, showing no traces of spontaneous generation in inanimate nature, were met with hostility. In the days of Pasteur, the theory of germs was flourishing. Prior to his work, people thought that the emergence of worms in the meat and fermentation of wine was a spontaneous processes (Yahya 17). As a result, on the list of men of science, not all have recognized the idea of Darwinism. In England, among them was the founder of the British Museum of Natural History, the anatomist Richard Owen, who opposed to the a few ideas of Darwin from a scientifically-based position. By the early twentieth century, it became clear for several that Darwin’s theory is flawed, since it remained unconfirmed in the fossil record. As a result, the numerous supporters of Darwinism begun to tinker and improve it, creating neo-Darwinism or the synthetic theory of evolution. Ever since then, it really is constantly evolving and is referred to even nowadays.

A Critical View on Darwin’s Theory

Darwin’s teaching is based on the explained facts of evolution, which can be the basis of the modern evolutionary theory. Nonetheless, the latter could not have been created on a single comparison of naturalistic facts. Therefore, one may assume that that Darwin’s evolutionism of the 1840s was developed in the framework of the old a few ideas of natural theology, which advertised that God has created all the existing things (Masci 759). In his works, Darwin used the language that was characteristic of the natural theology. Nonetheless, he started filling the old religious concepts with the evolutionary content. Thus, one may argue that Darwin has drawn a hypothesis by means of the creature that is able to make a selection more properly when compared to a human. The omnipresent and all-seeing being is able to look inside the organisms while making the selection of their significant variations and features that occur very rarely in nature and may ensure their survival in the foreseeable future. This line of reasoning has directly testified that Darwin failed to break up with the old theological ideas. Apparently, the immediate causes of the Creator into the evolutionary process has served as a primary explanation of the changes occurring with the species, while a small stock of intraspecific variations has had lower priority (Shanahan 118).

It really is worth mentioning that Darwin paid little attention to the definition of variability, which can be the adaptive response of organisms to the environmental factors. He thought that the main material for the evolution is provided by the so-called indefinite variability that occurs intoxicated by the external environment, but does not have an adaptive nature, i.e. it emerges spontaneously with out a particular reason. On the other hand, various opposing theories gave the dominant role in the process of evolution to adaptation. According to these theories, the adaptive changes are inherited and so are the material for the evolutionary process. Nonetheless, certain changes of adaptive sort – the so-called adaptive modifications (e.g. the crooked trunk of the tree that grew in harsh conditions) – are not inherited (Wallace 85). Only the ability of organisms to the certain external factors is transported from a single generation to another, as evidenced by the consistency with which the adaptive modifications appear again after the restoration of the former conditions.college argumentative essay outline In addition, numerous experiments have shown that the hereditary changes growing in the organisms are not adaptive. The adaptive modifications are not the newest abilities, but the reaction developed due to the evolution of organisms (Wallace 86). Moreover, the majority of the other concepts of evolution that explained the driving forces of the historical process in nature were speculative or based on the idealistic attitude. Nonetheless, the materialistic nature of Darwin’s theory caused it to be unacceptable to the conservative part of biologists and religiously-minded circles. Still, it should be noted that in order to improve the theory of natural selection, Darwin lacked several things, and especially genetics – the core of biology. Also, Darwin was not strong in logics, and some of his statements were contradictory. For example, he was unable to explain the simultaneous existence of complex (the animals) and simple (the germs) forms of living organisms, while, according to his theory, lower beings always evolved into the higher ones (Yahya 58). Moreover, mathematicians have over and over repeatedly drawn attention to the neo-Darwinian tautology in the provisions of the survival and adaptation – species survive because they’re able to adapt, as well as the power to adapt provides their survival. The time factor can be the key point for the theories of Darwinism and neo-Darwinism: there has become sufficient time for the evolution, as well as the same time factor ruled out an experimental test of whether there was variability in species as a result of change in the habitat conditions (Yahya 124). Thus, as a result of unverifiable biological macroevolution (from molecules to a man), the Darwin’s theory can be considered the object of faith, and is supposed to be derived beyond science.

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The Value of the Evolutionary Theory

Despite all the flaws and weak points of his teaching, Darwin is among the most first man in history to develop the theory of biological evolution. It really is of great methodological importance and has not only plainly and convincingly justified the idea of organic evolution, but also has caused it to be possible to check the validity of the very theory of evolution. It is a decisive phase of one of the greatest conceptual revolutions in science. The most important event in this clinical revolution was the replacement of the theological a few ideas of evolution, which claimed that flora and fauna were created in their modern form. Despite fierce criticism, Darwin’s theory quickly gained recognition due to the fact that the historical development of nature explained the observed events better than the immutability of species. To substantiate his theory, Darwin, contrary to his predecessors, has attracted a huge amount of facts available to him from a variety of areas. Highlighting the biotic relations and their popular interpretation was an important innovation of the concept of Darwinian evolution. It gives the right to conclude that Darwin created his own concept of the fight for existence. It was fundamentally different from the a few ideas of Darwin’s precursors. This is the essence of the clinical significance of Darwinism.

Another merit of Darwinism is his revelation of the driving forces of the organic evolution. The further development of biology has deepened and complemented his views, which has formed the basis of modern Darwinism. Nowadays, in all biological disciplines, the leading place is occupied by the historical research methods that allow examining an individual path of evolution of different organisms and penetrating deeply into the essence of biological phenomena. The evolutionary theory of Darwin was widely used in modern synthetic theory, where the only guiding factor of evolution is natural selection, the material for which is provided by the mutations. a historical analysis of Darwin’s theory inevitably gives rise to the new methodological problems of science, which might be the subject of a special study. The solutions to these problems entail widening of the field of knowledge, and hence the clinical progress in many areas: biology, medicine, and even psychology, on which the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin had no less influence than on the natural sciences. Moreover, the Darwinian approach has enabled an efficient conversion of pets and cultivars, and breeding of new, more productive strains of microorganisms which can be used while the producers of antibiotics. Thus, Darwinism has created the basis for viewing the entire biosphere of the planet as a complex evolving system, which might potentially allow humans to manage the evolutionary process.

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Globalisation, outsourcing and other trends have explicitly impacted supply chain actions and strategies of Toyota, as well as other companies. Nonetheless, Japanese companies such as Toyota also face a variety of challenges which can be more or less unique to their nations.  Most of these challenges are regarding the issues of flexibility (Heizer & Render 2014). Toyota Company tends to be less far along with its established standardised global operating models; largely because it supplies chain process is tightly defined by the enterprise technology. The net impact is that broadening or changing the company supply chain reach usually become more complicated, and thus, less equipped to address common problems common in the emergent market (McKeller 2014).

Comparative Analysis between American and Japanese Supply Chain Management

Many manufacturers are nowadays concerned with inefficiency and delivery practices of their companies. Therefore, companies are increasingly replicating successful supply chain management in an attempt to ensure efficiency in their supply systems (McKeller 2014). Any manufacturing firm can learn a lesson from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have arranged the operations in the US as well as the automotive companies.  In between 1980s and 1990, Japanese automakers established volume production capacity in the US, thus, their practices of manufacturing became the standard of quality for the US automotive industry (Morana 2013).  Ever since then, such practices went beyond the Just-in-time delivery of the parts to a plane and encompassed all lean manufacturing aspects.  Relocated Japanese automakers realised that their success largely depended on establishing a local supply chain, which implied sharing of similar manufacturing management technologies and practices with the US companies in order to become competitive in Japan (Morana 2013). Though it was initially recognized impossible considering the size of the continent and transportation network, Japanese businesses in the United States appear to prove otherwise. US automobile manufacturers started using the Just-in-time (JIT)   logistical approach from their companies.

Japanese Automakers, when compared with their US counterparts, tend to emphasise on long term business relationship. When Honda, Toyota and Nissan established an engine and assembly plants in the USA, they brought most of their nationals companies which had already grasped the lean concept and supply logistics (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014).  Nevertheless, pressure from the government made the automakers seek local supply sources that could meet their stringent, quality, cost and delivery standards. As a result, Japanese businesses had either to accept poor performance or invest their relationship with the US companies. As a result, they decided to invest in supplier development initiatives (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). Nonetheless, the American supply chain have been strenuous especially for the automakers before adoption of the lean concept. For instance, Johnson Controls, an American firm that delivered seats for the Toyota just few hours before the seat were installed in the assembly line (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014). Nonetheless, before dealing with Toyota, the supplier would have a huge inventory of seats. Subsequently, after dealing with Toyota, the levels of inventory went down from 32 days to 4.1 days.

The supplier plants making and shipping comparable product to both the US and Japanese customers maintains lower levels of inventory for the Japanese businesses than they do for the US automakers. Companies serving Japanese firm reached an inventory turnover of 38.3 as compared to 24.4 for the US customers. They also maintain less work in progress inventory, finished goods and on wheel inventory because of their Japanese customers.  a important variation also occurs on the list of Japanese and US customers (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). On the list of transplanted automakers of Japan, Toyota is certainly 1st lean manufacturer with its Toyota production system. In USA, Chrysler leads its US peer, having invested in JIT systems for getting parts to its assembly plants. In contrast, Ford has the highest on-the-wheel inventory (Saban 2012).

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Although, American businesses continue to lag behind their Japanese competitors, the US automakers work towards improving.  Whereas in the past weekly deliveries were common, there has been a significant change towards daily deliveries and, thus, supported efforts toward reduction of the inventory.  For instance, irrespective of its high on-the-wheel inventory, it is often moving aggressively towards realisation of a more effective and efficient, small-lot deliveries as a part of the Ford production system (Saban 2012). One would expect that reducing the inventory would raise the risk of missing deliveries to the customer and shutting down of the assembly line, as an aspect that would result in more expensive shipment by expedited trucks. Nonetheless, despite operating with far less inventory, Japanese transplants are not paying more for emergency shipping. Rather, they pay less in emergency shipping of roughly $371 per million sales than US automaker that pays $714 per million sales.  Toyota companies are the best performers with $204 while Chrysler is by far the worst with $1,235 (Packowski 2014).

Lean Production System, the Benefits and Challenges to the Motor Industry

Although, plenty was written about Just-in-time delivery as well as lean manufacturing, there seems to be a misunderstanding regarding how to utilise the above approaches effectively. Lean manufacturing is an ideology that is targeted on delivering quality products within the lowest cost through focusing at value stream focus (Saban 2012). The value stream entails all steps in the process which can be required to convert raw material into the item the customer desires.  As a result, any step up the process that fails to achieve this goal is usually considered wasteful in the operations. Ultimate goal of the lean supply chain management is to decrease the waste, so that the product flows as efficiently as you can. Nonetheless, the main element part of the lean manufacturing process is the JIT delivery that ensures getting appropriate part at the right time (Packowski 2014).

The birth of lean manufacturing philosophy was in Japan within Toyota in 1940s. Toyota production systems were based around to produce a continuous flow which failed to rely on long production runs to be efficient (Packowski 2014).  The model is entirely considering recognition that only small fraction of the total time and effort to process a product is added value to the end customer. Lean manufacturing starts with the customer’s definition of the value. Value is not defined by the company engineer, managers or the shareholder, but anything the customer is willing to pay for. Hence, since the manufacturing process forms the vehicle of delivering value to the customer, the principle of lean thinking is targeted on delivery product which can be appealing to the customers’ needs (Monden 2012).

Nonetheless, in order to link all the elements within the supply chain, it is essential to ensure the flow of value. It is a concept the most people contradicts with the mass production systems (Monden 2012). For instance, Toyota realised that lack of flow in the manufacturing process is the reason huge warehouses that house mass of inventory that consumes working capital of the firm. In the lean production process, value stream links the events or activities that ultimately deliver value to the consumer since it crosses functional and organisational boundaries (Monden 2012).  In the lean production concept, any activity or process that fails to add worth to the consumer is called waste. Nonetheless, the concept recognises that not totally all process is a waste, especially financial control they form a critical area of the company though they don’t add value to the customer.

Benefits of Lean Production System

Lean principles minimise all kind of waste from the source. Through the concept, many sources of the waste in Motor industry such as worn machines and production of defected parts are detected and correct earlier in the production process. As an aspect that limits transfer of such errors to the ultimate product of the vehicle (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).  Also, it permits identification of other designs of wastes such as environmental conditions that impacts operation efficiency. In addition, implementing lean maxims in company enhances staff satisfaction since their input is required in implementation of the concept (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). Employees are termed to be the most effective in pinpointing the source of waste and operation inefficiency in the motor industry. Therefore, inclusion in the process nurtures a sense of responsibility, ownership and eventually results in satisfaction, a crucial aspect in enhancing productivity and efficiency in production process.

The concept supplies a competitive advantage since it reduced the cost and improved efficiency. The technique introduces system and develops skills within the staff, an aspect that support operation changes that scale the production process (Ciravegna 2012).  Since it permits the motor businesses to save space in the warehouses, the extra space can be used for new auto-spare parts or other products. The concept can be accredited for its power to save yourself time since it makes a staff adapt and react to new work in a quick and efficient manner, thus, ensuring consumers’ needs are met (Ciravegna 2012). The concept offers the firm a competitive advantage since operation is usually first, with short iterations, minimal waste and timely delivery.


In most motor industry, lean production technique may be overused resulting to inefficiency of operations. This usually happens when tracking of productivity as well as the waste start to impact the time used for production. Initial implementation of lean maxims results in larger returns, but the productivity tends to drop with time (In Golińska 2014).  Therefore, in an attempt to push such expectations, it is essential to examine the value of improvement. For instance, refined throughput of 1000 parts an hour in one section, but with only 500 parts from the previous stage means that results haven’t improved (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). The concept also acts a source of frustration to the worker. This happens when a certain level of refinement are achieved, the company applies the lean method to realise more economy from the production process, an aspect that discourages the worker,  reverse positive motivation and undermines the company leadership (In Golińska 2014).  A trend indicating revert to previous improvement usually indicates staff resentment to the process. Therefore, striking a balance between the stasis and continuous improvement is a critical challenge that faces any lean environment.  Nonetheless, complex companies such as motor manufacturing firm are prone to such refinement because of complex nature of their operations (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).

Analysis of JIT production and Supply Management

Suitability of Toyota supply chain management was numerously questioned, especially from a environmental perspective. Nonetheless, it really is evident Toyota recognises that a stable supply chain is an important component of maintaining its manufacturing process (Chopra & Meindl 2013). The company works closely with companies in order to enhance its manufacturing procedures and productivity. Toyota is reputable for its manufacturing operations that eradicate non-value adding activity. In an attempt to enhance sustainability, Toyota has programs that permit sharing of skills and knowledge with the local companies in order to ensure their long-term sustainability (Agrawal 2010).

Toyota recognises significance of having sustainable and capable automotive parts manufacturers that are globally competitive. The company through its JIT concept continues to function closely with government as well as the industry to implements supplier improvement initiatives to enhance capabilities of local companies (Chopra & Meindl 2013). A team of specialists in Toyota’s supplier development collaboratively works with the supplier to embed the maxims of Toyota production System (TPS) in their manufacturing operations. The TPS strives for a completed eradication of the waste in all aspect of production to maximise efficiency. The company closely works with its companies in identification and implementation of safety, quality, cost and productivity improvement (Agrawal 2010).

Also, sustainable JIT needs to be eco-efficiency and may be  achieved through management of links in the supply chain to ensure they are aligned  with consumer service level  that involves acquisition of  raw materials and  delivery of the product to the client via design, procurement, production and distribution (Prater & Whitehead 2013).  Nonetheless, the use of JIT in Toyota has promoted sustainable logistics since its escalation in operational efficiency and environmental sustainability in the transport and logistics system. Also, Toyota JIT manufacturing strategy was devoted to changing the factory layout, thus, eliminates the need to transporting product back and forth to different machines; rather it arranges the machine to ensure that items flow smoothly from a single machine to the other (Prater & Whitehead 2013). This dramatically reduces the energy used, thus, promoting environmental sustainability.  JIT concept permits the company to reduce the amount of waste produced in term of defects since the system is designed to automatically detect the defects and only proceed until a human intervention fix the problem (Prater & Whitehead 2013).

In the face of global competition, companies focus more on customers needs and seek means of reducing costs, improve quality. As a result, many companies have identified logistics as areas to build advantages of cost and service (Fliedner 2012).  Just-in-time (JIT) management approach, which has traditionally been proved effective in manufacturing sector in quality enhancement, productivity and efficiency, improved communication and reduction of costs and waste permits the businesses to attain a competitive advantage through logistic (Fliedner 2012). The approach originated in Japan in 1950s. Ever since then, it is often subsequently adopted by Toyota and another Japanese manufacturing firm due to its potential to improve productivity while eliminating waste. In Japan, waste manufacturing process is described as anything else other than equipment, material and workers who are essential in production (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). The concept underlying the JIT is to find approaches to make processes more efficient with the ultimate objective of producing goods or services without incurring any waste.

JIT forms a integrated problem management perspective that aims at enhancing the quality and timeliness in production, supply and distribution.  Toyota, the first company to realise full potential of JIT believed that the only way to produce JIT efficient was to have every individual within the organisation involved and dedicated to the system, resources and processes are fully utilised for the maximum output and efficiency as well as the product are delivered to satisfy the market requirements without delay (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). To attain objectives of the JIT, the process largely hinges on the signals between different sections in the manufacturing process. Nonetheless, JIT relies heavily on other key elements in the inventory chain.  For example, effective application can not be independent of other key components of the lean manufacturing system. Irrespective of its influence in the manufacturing process, focusing JIT on the presupposition of steadiness is usually inherently flawed (Iyer, Seshadri & Vasher 2009).

Personal Reflections on Toyota Supply Management

it really is evident that global motor industry is facing challenges with its supply chain management, especially while the industry becomes globalised; the situation is complicated by increased competition as well as the urge to meet up with consumer needs. Nonetheless, enhancing sustainability of key supply chain management and model embraced by key companies such as Toyota remains a challenge. Although, the question was raised regarding suitability of JIT concept from a environmental perspective, I am of the opinion that enhancing and reinforcing environmental management in the supply chain is going to be critical for Toyota (Drake 2012).  In order to produce safe and clean products, it is critical that all Toyota firms form concerted efforts to manage the environmental impact through its supply chains.

Toyota needs to develop green purchasing guideline for its suppliers taking into consideration the changes in environmental laws and regulations that have taken place globally in the modern times. Such guideline will largely reinforce the management of substances of concerns from managing raw material, through design, development, production and delivery of the product. Explicit requirements vary subject to the type of industry as well as the commodity created by the supplier. Nonetheless, supplier needs to be expected to comply with the relevant environmental requirements.  Enhancing sustainability of the Toyota JIT model, Toyota needs to provide a guideline on corporate social responsibility (Fliedner 2012). Such guideline has to entail company expectations of the companies in the areas of environmental, safety and human being rights and complement the green purchasing instructions.

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The next decade was the most fruitful in the life of Carl Theodor Dreyer: he became a director. From 1920 to 1927 he was able to produce seven feature films. Finding means to them was not as easy as he had to move out of the country, in order to find sponsorship.

In 1925, after the success associated with the film ‘Honor your wife’, Dreyer received an offer to function in France. He received an offer to produce three films considering real historical stories, probably involving kings. Nonetheless, Dreyer was not interested in regal persons; he decided to make a film that describes the final days of Joan of Arc. The work process took more than two years, but the result was worth every penny: ‘The Passion of Joan of Arc’” is still considered one of the best works of this great director (Milne, 22).

With the advent of the sound era it became more difficult for Dreyer to improve money for his films. In addition, in the thirties the entire Scandinavian cinema was in crisis. It order not to fall in the final melancholy, Dreyer decided to return to journalism. For the third decade of the twentieth century, he was able to write many articles about the movie that became the material for the book ‘On the movie’. After that Carl Theodor Dreyer was able to return to the cinema, but until his death he was haunted by the lack of funds to implement his plans.

Around the same time, when Dreyer received a license to operate ‘Dagmar’, that is, in 1952, he began working on the script for his new film ‘The Word’. If the film came out, Dreyer recalled that he wanted to make this film once he saw the ‘Word’ in the theater at its premiere in 1932 (Drum & Drum, 14). It offers artistic integrity and a form of artistic naturalness, which can be very suited to the film.

Briefly thereafter, he composed to Kaj Munk, whom he had never met in person, and asked him how much he is willing to sell the rights. If the sum of money turned out to be rather high Dreyer, did not stop thinking, but he was not thinking about the money but about ‘The Word’. Only two years after that he had written a script staging ‘Kaj Munk’ served as a Lutheran pastor in the fishing community in Jutland, where he went after the theological faculty of the University of Copenhagen. In 1924 Munk was engaged in literary work, and is the author of about fifteen plays. In addition, Munk was a publicist and active anti-fascist. Back in 1938, he composed articles against Benito Mussolini. During the German occupation he failed to cease in his sermons to condemn fascism and Danish collaborators. Despite the entreaties of friends, Munk failed to want to go into hiding, and in 1944 he was shot by three officers of Gestapo far away from his own home. Munk was one of the most famous Danes who were killed because of their thinking during the occupation (Drum & Drum, 10).

In 1943, the ‘Word’ was filmed in Sweden, as well as the role played by older Borg Victor and Inger role by Wanda Rotgart, with who a year later dreyer was so unhappy during the filming of this ‘two’.